Aspek K3 Kelistrikan
- Bahaya listrik di Lingkungan Institusi Pelayanan Kesehatan
- Pembumian (grounding) dan insulas
- Pencegahan dan pengendalian bahaya listrik
- Pemanfaatan aliran listrik di rumah sakit sebagai penerangan, peralatan medik dan nonmedik
- Secara langsung dimanfaatkan oleh petugas rumah sakit maupun pasien
- Dapat menimbulkan bahaya apabila alur penggunaannya tidak tepat dan terkontrol.
- It is necessary to respect electricity & it’s hazards
- Young & old are at risk
- Patients are susceptible due to their reason for hospitalisation
- Most electrical safety hazards can be spotted by inspection before use
- It would appear that the young & old are more prone to electric shock
· Frst instance due to a lack of appreciation of the danger
· Second instance due to over familiarity
Hospital Electrical Safety
- Electrical equipment is used in Hospitals therefore the same risks are present, but the hazards are greater due to the involvement of sick people
- Nowadays the patient environment contains a large amount of medical equipment providing various functions to aid the care of patients
- Many items of medical equipment may be connected to the patient at the same time
- Human susceptibility to electric shock varies from individual to to individual & depends on a number of factors:
2. The dampness of the patients skin
3. The position of any electrodes on the patient
- The position of any electrodes on the patientPatients in a Critical Care environment are especially susceptible
Effects Of Electricity
- Many people have received an electric shock at some stage or other through carelessness
- Main effects:
1. Neuromuscular (stimulation of nerves & muscles)
2. Heating (burns)
3. Electrolysis (decomposition/chemical change)
4. Heart (50 microamps can interfere with cardiac cycle)
5. Electric Shock : unwanted or unnecessary physiological
response to current
- Three phenomena :
1. electrical stimulation of excitable tissue (nerve & muscle)
2. resistive heating of tissue, and
3. electrochemical burns and tissue damage
2 Jenis Bahaya Listrik Bagi Manusia
- Bahaya makroshok
Adanya arus listrik yang dalam jumlah relatif besar mengalir melalui jaringan tubuh manusia.Akibatnya akan terjadi terkejut, rasa lelah, gangguan pernapasan, atau febrilasi ventrikular pada jantung dan luka bakar.
- Bahaya mikroshok
Bahaya yang diakibatkan mengalirnya sejumlah kecil arus listrik yang melalui jantung secara internal à akan menimbulkan febrilasi ventrikular pada jantung.Arus yang mengalir kecil maka hampir tidak terasakan oleh tubuh kita.
Physiological effects of electricity
Pembumian (grounding) dan insulasi
a direct physical connection from electric circuit to the Earth
- Electrical circuits may be connected to ground (earth) for several reasons
Reasons of grounding
- In power circuits : for safety purposes to protect people from the effects of faulty insulation on electrically powered equipment.
- Helps limit the voltage built up between power circuits and the earth
- Protecting circuit insulation from damage due to excessive voltage.
- May be used to limit the build-up of static electricity when handling flammable products or when repairing electronic devices
Pembumian (grounding) dan insulasi
- Electrical insulation is a material that resists the flow of electric current.
- An object intended to support or separate electrical conductors without passing current through itself is called an insulat
- Some materials such as silicon dioxide or teflon are very good electrical insulators.
- A much larger class of materials, for example rubber-like polymers and most plastics are still "good enough" to insulate electrical wiring and cables even though they may have lower bulk resistance.
- can serve as practical and safe insulators for low to moderate voltages (100-10000 volts).
- Equipment is designed & built to comply with safety standards, namely BS EN 60601-1
- This lays down constructional guidelines for medical equipment which influence the safety of the equipment
- Water & electricity
- Overloaded circuits
- Damaged insulation
- Misuse of extension cables
- Exposed wiring
- Power cords in walkways
- If equipment gets wet, get it checked
- If cabling damaged/exposed, get it checked
- Do not replace fuses on medical equipment
- If equipment damaged, get it checked
How Can Users Assist?
- Do NOT carry out any repairs yourself
- Check equipment for damage before use
- Ensure there is no damage to mains plug
- Do understand how to use the equipment safely
Points To Remember
- Fuses are the weakest link
- Avoid touching patients & equipment at the same time, as a conductive path exists
- Let common sense prevail
Remember do not end up like this person!
Terdapat dalam Materi K3-RS term 3 Perumahsakitan Universitas Indonesia untuk kepentingan tugas.