Kamis, 18 Oktober 2012

Aspek K3 Kelistrikan


Aspek K3 Kelistrikan

  • Bahaya listrik di Lingkungan Institusi Pelayanan Kesehatan
  • Pembumian (grounding) dan insulas
  • Pencegahan dan pengendalian bahaya listrik     
Bahaya Listrik
  • Pemanfaatan aliran listrik di rumah sakit sebagai penerangan, peralatan medik dan nonmedik
  • Secara langsung dimanfaatkan oleh petugas rumah sakit maupun pasien
  • Dapat menimbulkan bahaya apabila alur penggunaannya tidak tepat dan terkontrol. 
Electrical Safe
  • It is necessary to respect electricity & it’s hazards
  • Young & old are at risk
  • Patients are susceptible due to their reason for hospitalisation
  • Most electrical safety hazards can be spotted by inspection before use
  • It would appear that the young & old are more prone to electric shock
Reason:
·        Frst instance due to a lack of appreciation of the danger
·        Second instance due to over familiarity
  
Hospital Electrical Safety 
  •   Electrical equipment is used in Hospitals therefore the same risks are present, but the hazards are greater due to the involvement of sick people
  •   Nowadays the patient environment contains a large amount of medical equipment providing various functions to aid the care of patients
  • Many items of medical equipment may be connected to the patient at the same time
  •   Human susceptibility to electric shock varies from individual to to individual & depends on a number of factors:
1. The patients general state of health
2. The dampness of the patients skin
3. The position of any electrodes on the patient
  • The position of any electrodes on the patientPatients in a Critical Care environment are especially susceptible
Effects Of Electricity

  •       Many people have received an electric shock at some stage or other through carelessness
  •       Main effects:

1. Neuromuscular (stimulation of nerves & muscles)
2. Heating (burns)
3. Electrolysis (decomposition/chemical change)
4. Heart (50 microamps can interfere with cardiac cycle)
5. Electric Shock : unwanted  or unnecessary physiological 
    response to current

  •         Three phenomena :

1.  electrical stimulation of excitable tissue (nerve & muscle)
2.  resistive heating of tissue, and
3.   electrochemical burns and tissue damage 


2   Jenis Bahaya Listrik Bagi Manusia
  •     Bahaya makroshok

     Adanya arus listrik yang dalam jumlah relatif besar mengalir melalui jaringan tubuh manusia.Akibatnya akan terjadi terkejut, rasa lelah, gangguan pernapasan, atau febrilasi ventrikular pada jantung dan luka bakar.
  •    Bahaya mikroshok

    Bahaya yang diakibatkan mengalirnya   sejumlah kecil arus   listrik yang melalui jantung secara internal à akan menimbulkan febrilasi ventrikular pada jantung.Arus yang mengalir kecil maka hampir tidak terasakan oleh tubuh kita.


Physiological effects of electricity





Pembumian (grounding) dan insulasi


  •    Grounding

      a direct physical connection from electric circuit to the      Earth

  •    Electrical circuits may be connected to ground (earth) for several reasons

Reasons of grounding

  •     In power circuits : for safety purposes to protect people from the effects of faulty insulation on electrically powered equipment.
  •     Helps limit the voltage built up between power circuits and the earth
  •     Protecting circuit insulation from damage due to excessive voltage.
  •     May be used to limit the build-up of static electricity when handling flammable products or when repairing electronic devices  


 


Pembumian (grounding) dan insulasi



  •    Insulasi
    •    Electrical insulation is a material that resists the flow of electric current.
    •    An object intended to support or separate electrical conductors without passing current through itself is called an insulat
  • Some materials such as silicon dioxide or teflon are very good electrical insulators.
  •  A much larger class of materials, for example rubber-like polymers and most plastics are still "good enough" to insulate electrical wiring and cables even though they may have lower bulk resistance. 
    •    can serve as practical and safe insulators for low to moderate voltages (100-10000 volts). 




Safety Standards
  •    Equipment is designed & built to comply with safety standards, namely BS EN 60601-1
  •    This lays down constructional guidelines for medical equipment which influence the safety of the equipment
Hazards
  •     Water & electricity
  •     Overloaded circuits
  •     Damaged insulation
  •     Misuse of extension cables
  •     Exposed wiring
  •     Power cords in walkways
Precautions

  •    If equipment gets wet, get it checked
  •    If cabling damaged/exposed, get it checked
  •    Do not replace fuses on medical equipment
  •    If equipment damaged, get it checked

How Can Users Assist?

  •    Do NOT carry out any repairs yourself
  •    Check equipment for damage before use
  •    Ensure there is no damage to mains plug
  •    Do understand how to use the equipment safely
Points To Remember
  •     Fuses are the weakest link
  •     Avoid touching patients & equipment at the same time, as a conductive path exists
  •     Let common sense prevail
Remember do not end up like this person!


Terdapat dalam Materi K3-RS term 3 Perumahsakitan Universitas Indonesia untuk kepentingan tugas.





















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